6. The action for promoting circular economy in carbon mitigation purpose
Focusing on resource utilization as a key factor, we will push ahead with the development of the circular economy, and work toward an all-around improvement in the efficiency of resource utilization. In the process, we will fully leverage synergistic effects between efforts to reduce resource consumption and cut carbon emissions.
(a) Pushing industrial parks to develop in a circular manner
Setting our sights on enhancing the productivity of resources and raising the rate at which they are recycled, we will optimize the spatial layout of industrial parks, and retrofit these parks to facilitate circular production. Circular production in enterprises and circular organization of industries in these parks will be encouraged as well, and arrangements will be made for enterprises to conduct retrofits for clean production. We will promote the comprehensive utilization of waste, cascading use of energy, and circular use of water resources. To be specific, we will facilitate the recycling of residual heat and pressure as well as waste gas, liquid, and slag from industrial processes, and actively expand the application of centralized gas and heating supply. We will set up platforms for sharing infrastructure and public services, and strengthen the management of material flow in parks. By 2030, all key industrial parks at the provincial level or above will be upgraded to support circular operations.
(b) Strengthening the comprehensive use of bulk solid waste
We will enhance the comprehensive utilization level and increase the multipurpose utilization rates of mineral resources. We will support the large-scale utilization of waste in manner that maximizes proportion and value with a focus on bulk solid wastes including coal gangue, coal fly ash, tailings, associated minerals, smelting slag, byproduct gypsum, construction refuse, and crop straw, and encourage the use of such waste as a substitute for raw non-metallic minerals and gravel. On the condition of being safe and eco-friendly, we will explore the use of phosphogypsum in improving soil, back filling underground mines, and preparing sub-grade for roads. The recycling of construction wastes will be promoted, and the in-situ reclamation and use of abandoned pavement materials will be widely applied. We will accelerate the recycling of crop straw in a way that maximizes its value by refining systems for purchase, storage, and transportation, while strictly enforcing the burning ban. We will also speed up efforts to carry out demonstration projects for the comprehensive utilization of bulk solid waste. By 2025, the amount of bulk solid waste recycled annually will reach around 4 billion metric tons, rising to about 4.5 billion by 2030.
(c) Refining systems for resource recycling
We will improve recycling networks for used materials and waste, and put an "Internet +" recycling model into practice, thus realizing the reclamation of renewable resources to the fullest possible extent. We will strengthen the standardized management of industries related to the comprehensive utilization of renewable resources in order to foster industry clusters. We will advance the high-standard construction of modernized centers for recovering mineral resources from urban waste, and promote the clean, standardized, and large-scale use of renewable resources. We will push forward circular utilization of waste from emerging industries such as decommissioned batteries, photovoltaic modules, and rotor blades of wind turbines. We will also drive high-quality development of remanufacturing industries such as auto parts, engineering machinery, and stationery and office equipment. We will expand the use of remanufactured products and products made from recycled resources. By 2025, the total amount of nine major reusable resources including steel scrap, cooper, aluminum, lead, zinc, waste paper, plastic, rubber, and glass recycled will top 450 million metric tons, reaching 510 million by 2030.
(d) Vigorously promoting efforts to reduce and recycle household waste
We will move steadily ahead with the sorting of household waste, and work faster to establish collection, transportation, and disposal systems for household waste covering all of society, thereby ensuring that all household waste can be discarded, collected, transported, and disposed of in a well-sorted manner. We will intensify efforts to control plastic pollution throughout the entire process from production to recycling, and take action against excessive packaging, so as to reduce the amount of household waste from this source. We will promote incineration of household waste, bring down the proportion of waste disposed in landfills, and develop recycling technology that is tailored to the peculiarities of kitchen waste in China. The recycling of sewage will also be advanced. By 2025, a basic sorting system for urban household waste will be established, with the reclamation rate up to about 60%. By 2030, the sorting system for urban household waste will cover all cities, and the reclamation rate will rise to 65%.
7. The action for advancing green and low-carbon technology innovation
We will give full play to the supporting and guiding role of scientific and technological innovation and improve the relevant mechanisms and systems, so as to enhance our innovation capability and accelerate the revolution in green and low-carbon science and technology.
(a) Improving innovation mechanisms and systems
An action plan will be formulated to ensure that science and technology support and guide China's achievement of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality. Major R&D and demonstration projects for key technologies related to the achievement of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality will be set up in national key R&D programs, making use of open competition mechanisms to select the best candidates to lead the projects, and intensifying core technology research for reaching low carbon, zero carbon, and carbon negative. Achievements in green and low-carbon technological innovation will be included in the performance assessments of institutions of universities, scientific and research institutes, and state-owned enterprises. We will boost the principal role of enterprises in innovation, support their participation in major national green and low-carbon science and technology projects, and encourage the sharing of facilities, data, and other resources. A national green technology trade center will be set up to accelerate the commercialization of innovations. The intellectual property rights protection for green and low-carbon technologies and products will be strengthened, and the testing, evaluation, and certification systems for them will be improved.
(b) Enhancing innovation capability and personnel training
National laboratories, key national laboratories, and national technology innovation centers related to the realization of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality will be set up, relevant major national science and technology infrastructure will be planned in advance, and enterprises, universities, and research institutes will be guided in a joint effort to build national green and low-carbon industrial innovation centers. We will develop new approaches in personnel training, encourage institutions of universities to accelerate discipline development and talent training in new energy, energy storage, hydrogen energy, carbon emissions mitigation, carbon sinks, and the carbon emission trading, and establish a group of future institutes of technology, modern industrial institutes, and demonstration energy institutes focusing on green and low-carbon technologies. We will deepen industry-education integration, encourage school-enterprise cooperation in educating students, launch an alliance for industry-education integration on the realization of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality, and set up a number of national innovation platforms for industry-education integration on energy storage technology.
(c) Boosting application-oriented basic research
We will launch a group of major national projects for forward-looking, strategically important cutting-edge technologies with a view to making breakthroughs in low-carbon, zero-carbon, and carbon-negative technological equipment R&D. Focusing on green and smart development and the clean, low-carbon utilization of fossil energy, large-scale utilization of renewable energy, new types of power system, energy conservation, hydrogen energy, energy storage, power batteries, and carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage, we will deepen application-oriented basic research. We will step up R&D in advanced nuclear energy technology, particularly cutting edge and disruptive technologies such as controlled nuclear fusion.
(d) Accelerating the R&D and wider application of advanced practical technologies
We will intensify innovation on technologies, particularly into the safe, stable operation and control of major complex power grids, large wind farms, high-efficiency photovoltaic panels, heavy-duty liquefied natural gas engines, large capacity energy storage, low-cost hydrogen production from renewable energy sources, and low-cost carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage; accelerate R&D in basic materials such as carbon fiber, aerogel, and special steel; and shore up our short slab in key spare parts, components, and software. We will broaden the application of advanced, mature green and low-carbon technologies and carry out related demonstrations. We will carry out demonstration projects for whole-process, integrated, and large-scale carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage as well as demonstrations for the application of molten salt storage for heat supply and power generation. R&D into hydrogen energy technology and its demonstrations applications will be accelerated, and its large-scale application will be trialed in industry, transportation, and construction.